crypto module contains the base cryptographic functionality for Bitcoin-s. Specifically, this includes the fundamental cryptographic data structures and functions such as keys, hashing encryption and signing. This module does not include secondary cryptographic types and functions such as those pertaining to BIP 32 or 39, nor does it include signature code specific to Bitcoin transactions. For all of these things, see the core module. It is very important to keep this code well tested, and we also try to minimize the dependencies of this module.
Dealing with Array[Byte]
The crypto module contains a trait called
NetworkElement which is extended by all data structures with byte serializations. This allows for a uniform interface when dealing with serialization and deserialization which can be very important when constructing hashes. Additionally, the
Factory trait can be extended by companion objects of
NetworkElements to allow for out-of-the-box constructors from String hex or bytes in little or big endian given one constructor. The
CryptoUtil object provides easy access to hash functions and
HashDigest wraps the results in nice types. Lastly, this module also contains a
BytesUtil for dealing with raw bytes and raw hex.
The crypto module contains support for AES using the object
AesCrypt and its companion data structures.
Elliptic Curve Keys and Functions
ECKey.scala contains types
ECPrivateKey which represent private and public keys for the secp256k1 curve (used by Bitcoin).
There also exists
SchnorrNonce that can be used for doing BIP 340 compatible Schnorr signatures.
These keys also implement functions for using them to create and verify
ECPrivateKey implements the
Sign interface. Note that all sensitive information (such as private keys) extends the
MaskToString interface which overrides the
toString method to mask the actual result unless
toStringSensitive is explicitly called.
This is done to avoid accidentally logging keys.
Utility functions for signatures (such as checking for or flipping to low s) can be found in
Lastly, Bitcoin-S uses Java Native Interface (JNI) bindings to the Bitcoin library secp256k1 to execute cryptographic functions by default. See this doc for more details. However, fall-back implementations of all cryptographic functions supported and used exist using the bouncy castle library in
// Randomly generate new key val privateKey = ECPrivateKey.freshPrivateKey // Construct private key from hex val privateKeyFixed = ECPrivateKey("6846a082d76e7c34cd2deddc6ef3d4cb3220e6c72c7c9ec03408d60ed976837c") // Compute public key from private key val publicKey = privateKey.publicKey // Take SHA256 hash val hash = CryptoUtil.sha256(ByteVector("Hello".getBytes())) // Sign and verify signature val sig = privateKey.sign(hash) val validSig = publicKey.verify(hash, sig)
// Randomly generate new key val privateKey = ECPrivateKey.freshPrivateKey // Construct private key from hex val privateKeyFixed = ECPrivateKey("6846a082d76e7c34cd2deddc6ef3d4cb3220e6c72c7c9ec03408d60ed976837c") // Compute schnorr public key from private key val publicKey = privateKey.schnorrPublicKey // Take SHA256 hash val hash = CryptoUtil.sha256(ByteVector("Hello".getBytes())) // Sign and verify signature val sig = privateKey.schnorrSign(hash.bytes) val validSig = publicKey.verify(hash.bytes, sig)